Professor Maruyama's writings:

Created by Per Nyfelt

Managerial and administrative accidents

Source: Management Dynamics (2006)

De-stereotyping the corporate culture

Source: Management Dynamics (2006)

How to Foster Art, and How Art Can Foster Futurogenic Business

Source: Futures Bulletin (2004), Vol. 28 Issue 2-4

Polyocular Vision or Subunderstanding

Abstract: There are several meta-level considerations which are seldom taken up but are crucial. Two of them are discussed in this article: polyocular vision, in which the differences between images obtained from many angles enable the brain to compute invisible mental coordinates; and illusion of understanding, in which a person is convinced that he or she has a perfect understanding while missing the most important points of others. Job rotation and quasi-rotation help cultivate polyocular vision. On the other hand, concept inbreeding in an organization poses a barrier to polyocular vision. Intellectual outbreeding is facilitated by establishing conceptual "free trade zones" such as the Peripheral Vision section in this journal.

Keywords: illusory understanding; cognitive types; job rotation; outbreeding

Source: Organization Studies (2004), Vol. 25 Issue 3, pg 467-480


Futerogenic management

Source:Metamorphosis (2004)

Interactive Heterogeneity: Introduction

Source: International Review of Sociology; (Nov 2003), Vol. 13 Issue 3, pg 499-507


Individual Cognitive/Cogitative Types

Source: International Review of Sociology; (Nov 2003), Vol. 13 Issue 3, pg. 545-566


Causal Loops, Interaction, and Creativity.

Source: International Review of Sociology; (Nov 2003), Vol. 13 Issue 3, pg. 607-629


Authenticity in institutions and organizations

Source: Metamorphosis (2002), Vol 1, Nr 1 pg 71-86

Individual Heterogeneity, Human Resources and Management Policy

Abstract: Heterogeneity of individual cognitive types exists in any culture beneath the surface of stereotypically ritualized behavior. These individual types exist across boundaries and are therefore transcultural, contrary to the widely held assumption that individual must be subcultural variations. This has profound implications in human resources utilization and training. One of the cognitive types is indispensable for futurogenic management which goes beyond proactive management and generates unprecedented and unforeseen changes. An overlooked problem in understanding between different cognitive types is dimension reduction, which produces illusion of perfect understanding by reducing the cognitive dimensions of the communication sender into the dimensions of the communication receiver. This problem has not been considered because of the theorists´ unawareness of heterogeneity of cognitive dimensions.

Keywords: Cognitive types, Futorogenic management, Dimension reduction

Source: Metamorphosis (2002), Vol 1, Nr 2 pg 155-183

Transcultural Individual Epistemological Types: A New Theoretical Framwork and Methodology

Source: Paper presented at American Sociological Association meeting (2001). Written together with Anatoly Zankovsky and Kamal Fatehi

Individual Types: Subcultural or Transcultural

Source: The General Psychologist (2001), vol.36:3 pg 64-67


Self heterogenization and cultural milieu selection.

Source: In Multiculturalism as a Fourth force, edited by Paul Pedersen, Philadelphia: Brunner/Mazel

Heterogram analysis: Where the assumption of normal distribution is illogical

Source: Human Systems Management (1999), Vol. 18 Issue 1, pg 53-61


Relationology, outbreeding, and direct contextual experiencing for future social sciences

Source: Cybernetica, (1998), 41, pg. 91-108

Academic concept inbreeding, failure of interbreeding, and popularization by metaphorization

Source: Human Systems Management (1998), Vol. 17 Issue 2, pg 89-91


Zeitgeist[a], experiential or intellectual anchorability, and popularization by metaphorization

Abstract: Incipient signs of a change in Zeitgeist are being felt. under a new Zeitgeist, some theories which have been excluded, ignored or suppressed by the past dominant mainstream theories may emerge into the daylight. this article examines the process of popularization of theories and discusses how they may relate to emergence of hitherto exluded, ignored or suppressed theories. Two new concepts are introcudes in this article: metaphorizability and anchorability.

Source: Human Systems Management (1998), Vol. 17 Issue 4, pg 297-302


Beyond post-modernism: trends since 100 years

Source: Cybernetica (1997), 40, pg. 169-178

ISSN 0167-2533

A situational informatical dynamics

Source: Informatica (1997)

Post-totalitarian deconversion trauma

Source: Human Systems Management (1996), Nr 15

ISSN 0167-2533

Logic, cultures, and individuals

Abstract: Focuses on the social sciences in different countries. Fallacious assumptions of the social sciences; Comparison of the countries' cultures; Implications of the dominance of the H-type logic in many societies

Source: UNESCO Courier (feb 1996), Vol. 49 Issue 2, pg 31-35


Individual epistemological heterogeneity across cultures and its use in organizations

Source: Cybernetica (1995), Vol 37, Nr 3

Successfull modification of study guidelines for student projects with business firms

Source: Cybernetica (1994), 37, pg 59-72

Interwoven and interactive heterogeneity in the 21st century

Source: Technological Forecasting and Social Change (Jan 1994), Volume 45, Issue 1, pg 93-102


Mindscapes in Management: Use of individual differences in Multicultural Management

Source: Aldershot (1994), Darthmouth

Mindscapes: The Epistemologies of Magoroh Maruyama.

Source: 1994, M. Caley, D Sawada (Eds), Gordon & Breach, N.Y.

Psychological tests for epistemological heterogeneity across cultures

Source: Communication & Cognition (1994), Vol 27, Nr 4, pg 377-396

Grammatical simplification without loss of literary quality

Abstract: Each language is rich in its own way. It enriches one's mind to learn different types of languages. However, it takes years to learn not only foreign languages but also one's own mother tongue because of unnecessary grammatical complexity such as irregular conjugations and declension. There are ways to simplify unnnecessary complexity in order to reduce the learning time. The time saved can be used to learn more languages, or few languages with greater depth, or other subjects.


Source: Cybernetica (1993), Vol 36, Nr 1, pg 31-35

Mindscapes, Individuals and Cultures in Management

Source: Journal of Management Inquiry (1993) Sage publications, Vol. 2, Nr. 2, pg. 140-155

Context and complexity : cultivating contextual understanding

Source: New York : Springer-Verlag (1992)

Changing dimensions in international business

Source: Academy of Management Executive (Aug 1992), Vol. 6 Issue 3, pg 88-97


Anti-monopoly Law to prevent Dominance by One Theory in Academic Departments

Source: Human Systems Management (1992), 11, pg 219-220

Entropy, Beaty and Eumorphy

Source: Cybernetica (1992), 35, pg 195-206

Dysfunctional, misfunctional, and toxifunctional aspects of cultures, organizations, and individuals

Abstract: Anthropologists tends to assume that each culture has attained a satisfactory pattern and all of its aspects are interrelatedly functional. Management theorists consider it their task to identify the sources of inefficiency of an organization and to cure its malfunctioning or underfunctioning aspects. Clinical psychologists deal with pathological aspects of the induvidual's mind and toxifunctional aspects of social behavior. This article proposes mutual use of these concepts between anthropology, management science, and psychology.

Source: Technological Forecasting and Social Change (1992), 42, pg 301-307

A quickly understandable notation system for causal loops for strategic decision makers

Source: Technological Forecasting and Social Change (1992), 42, pg 409-412

Policy for international talent utilization

Abstract: We are facing an internationally uneven distribution of excess and shortage of engineers, professionals and multiculturally experienced managers, resulting in acute problems for head-hunting, in-house training and staff retension. Excellent trained engineers may deteriorate in outmoded factories in some countries. Matching between corporate culture and host country culture is crucial. Cross-national career advancement is increasingly practiced with or without awareness of cultural differences. This article gives actual examples of problems and solutions in major firms.

Source: 1991

Epistemological heterogeneity and subsedure: individual and social processes

Source: Communication and Cognition (1991), 24, pg. 255-272

Mentiformes et paysagement

Source: Cybernetica (1991), 34, pg 137-146

Improving the interlanguage Phonetic Transcription Methods

Source: Cybernetica (1991), 34, pg 43-47

International proactive marketing

Abstract: Marketing in a changing and culturally diverse world requires new methods: product adaptation for foreign user habits, interactive invention, and strategic judo. Market research must incorporate consumer behavior observation methods and participant observation methods. Employees with morphogenetic mindscapes must be selected for interactive invention.

Source: Marketing Research (Jun 1990), Vol. 2 Issue 2, pg 36-50


Organizational structure, training, and selection of outer space crew members

Source: Technological Forecasting and Social Change (April 1990), Volume 37, Issue 2, Pg 203-212


Morphogenetic teaching in international business

Source: Journal of Teaching in International Business (1989), 1, pg. 77-93

Epstemological Sources of New Business Problems in International Environment

Source: Human Systems Management (1989), 8, pg. 71-80

New approaches to international economic problems Using cultural and social characteristics

Source: Futures (June 1989), Volume 21, Issue 3, Pages 291-293


Practical Steps for Interactive Inventions

Source: Technology Analysis & Strategic Management (1989), Vol 1, Nr 4


The Context in which the Second Cybernetics was Published, and later developments

Source: Citation Classic (1988), February 22, Pg 12

Multicultural management frictions in Japanese firms operating in foreign countries (in Japanese)

Source: Ekonomisto Weekly (December 1988), 13, pg. 78-84

Logic of the Japanese General Trading Companies

Source: Technological forecasting and social change, (1988), 34, pg. 305-310

The inverse practice principle in multicultural management

Source: Academy of Management Executives (1988), 2, 1, pg. 68-68

Dynamics among business practice, aestetics, science, politics and religion

Source: Cultural Dynamics (1988), 1, Pg. 309-335

Technology policy and economic performance: lessons from Japan : Christopher Freeman

Source: Futures (April 1988), Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 210-213


New economic thinking: Morphogenetic causal loops and product adaptation strategy

Source: Futures (August 1987), Volume 19, Issue 4, Pages 437-441


Japan's agricultural policy failure

Source: Food Policy (1987), May 1987 issue, pg 123-126

High technology business in mainland China and Japan

Source: Futures (February 1987), Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 94-100


Futures dossier : Toward picture-coded information systems

Source: Futures (June 1986), Volume 18, Issue 3, Pages 450-452


Morphogenetic economics: Change-amplification by causal loops

Abstract: The monetarist, Keynesian, and supply side theories are based on the concept of equilibria. But in reality the relations among variables may build casual loops that are change-amplifying. The morphogenetic economic theory includes in its analysis both change-amplifying and change-counteracting causal loops. In the existing economic theories, the major policy tools are money supply and government expenditure.But in the morphogenetic economics, some other elements can be seen as effective policy tools, depending on the node factor, the velocity, and the strength of the causal loop they belong to. The present overdependence on money supply or government expenditure as main tools of economic policy is inadequate. Furthermore, the morphogenetic economics differ from the existing economic theories in its calculation of the level of equilibria and of crowding-out effects.

Source: Technological Forecasting and Social Change (1986), 29, pg 205-213

Mindscapes: how to understand specific situations in multicultural management

Source: Asia Pacific Journal of Management (1985), 2 pg. 125-149

The new logic of Japans young generations

Source: Technological Forecasting and Social Change (1985), 28, pg 351-368

Experience looping, design looping and concept crossing: The key to successful product invention, development and adaptation

Source: Futures (August 1985), Volume 17, Issue 4, Pages 385-389


Alternative concepts of management: insights from Asia and Africa

Source: Asia Pacific Journal of Management (1984), 1 pg. 100-111

Aesthetics and the environment in outer space, subterranean and underwater communities

Source: Futures (April 1984), Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 148-162


Japanese management theories and Japanese criticisms

Source: Futures (June 1983), Volume 15, Issue 3, Pages 170-180


Theories of Japanese Culture

Current Anthropology, Vol. 24, Nr. 5. (Dec., 1983), pp. 658-660


Mindscapes, Management, Business Policy, and Public Policy

Source: The Academy of Management Review, Vol. 7, Nr. 4. (Oct., 1982), pg. 612-619.


Four different causal metatypes in biological and social sciences

Source: In W. Schieve and P. Allen (eds) Self-organization and dissipative structures (1982), Austin, University of Texas press

Mindscapes, Workers and Management: Japan and USA

Source: in Sang Lee (ed) (1982), Management of Japanese Systems, Praeger publications

New Mindscapes for Future Business Policy and Management

Source: Technological forecasting and social change (1982), 20, pg. 53-76

Denkmunster: metaprinzipien der Umweltgestaltung

Source: Garten und Landschaft (1981), October issue pg 806-815

Mindscapes and Science Theories

Source: Current Anthropology, Vol. 21, Nr. 5. (Oct., 1980), pp. 589-608.


Mindscapes, social patterns and future development of scientific theory types

Source: Cybernetica, (1980), 23, 1, pg. 5-25.

Epistemological and Cultural Barriers to Mutualistic Thinking

Source: Futurics (1980), Vol 4. Nr 2. pg 97-116


Source: World Future Society Bulletin (1979), 13, pg. 13-23

Trans-epistemological understanding: wisdom beyond theories.

Source: In Currents in Anthropology (Sol Tax Festschrift) (1979), edited by R. Hinshaw, Den Haag: Mouton


Source: Perspectives on Ethnicity (1978), Series World Anthropology, R. Holloman and S. Arutinov, eds Den Haag: Mouton

Epistemologies and esthetic principles

Source: Journal of the Steward Anthropological Society (1978), 8, pg. 155-167.

Settlements in space

Source: In Handbook of futures research (1978) edited by Jib Fowles, Greenwood Press

Endogeneous research and polyocular antropology.

Source: In perspectives on Etnicity (1978) edited by R Holloman and S. Artiunov, Series World Anthropology, Den Haag: Mouton

The epistemological revolution: Prigogine and reciprocal causal logic

Source: Futures (June 1978), Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 240-242


Prigogine's Epistemology and Its Implications for the Social Sciences

Source: Current Anthropology (Jun. 1978), Vol. 19, Nr. 2. pg. 453-455.


Cultures of the future

Source: World anthropology (1978)

Heterogenistics and Morphogenetics: Toward a New Concept of the Scientific

Source: Theory and Society, Vol. 5, Nr. 1. (Jan., 1978), pg. 75-96.


New movements in old traps

Source: Futurics (1977), 2, pg. 59-62

Space settlements: a design study

Source: NASA-SP 413 (1977), co-authored with 24 others

Design principles and cultures

Source: Proceedings of the American Astronautic Society Conference of October 1977 (1978)

Heterogensitics; an epistemological restructuring of biological and social sciences

Source: Cybernetica (1977), 20, 1, pg. 69-85.
also referenced as Acta Biotheoretica (1977), 26, pg. 120-136

Social and political interactions among extraterrestial communities: contrasting models.

Source: Technological forecasting and social change (1976), Volume 9, pg 349-360

Designing a space community

Source: Futurist (1976), Volume 10, pg 273-281

Extraterrestial Community Designy

Source: Cybernetica (1976), 19, pg 46-62

Design principles for extraterrestrial communities

Source: Futures (April 1976), Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 104-121


Trans-epistemological understanding, or Wisdom beyond theories

Source: 1975

Diversity, Survival Value and Enrichment

Source: Proceedings of Princeton/AIAA/NASA Conference (1975), AIAA Press (1997)

Paradigmatology and its application to cross-disciplinary, cross- professional and cross-cultural communication

Source: Cybernetica (1974), 17, pg. 135-156, 237- 281.

Endogenous research vs "experts" from outside

Abstract: Administrators and planners are often guilty of academocentrism, that is, they focus to such an extent on theories generated by their own logic and methodology that they fail to recognize the existance of other logics. In practice this can produce a very distorted view of social reality.The author illustrates how a truer picture can be obtained when the purpose of the researchers converges with that of the people in the community studied.

Source: Futures (October 1974), Volume 6, Issue 5, Pages 389-394


Hierarchists, individuals and mutualists: three paradigms among planners

Source: Futures (1974), Vol. 6, issue 2, pg. 103-113


Cultural, social and psychological considerations in the planning of public works

Source: Technological Forecasting and Social Change (1973) Vol. 5 pg 135-143

A new logical model for futures research

Source: Futures (October 1973), Volume 5, Issue 5, Pages 431-437


Human futuristcs and urban planning

Source: Journal of American Institute of Planners (1973), Vol. 39, pg 346-357

Paradigmatology and its application to cross-disciplinary, cross-proffessional and cross-cultural communication

Source: World Anthropology (1973), Proc. 9th Int. congr. Anthro. Ethnol., Mouton

Toward Human Futuristics

Source: Co-existence (1972), 9, pg. 101-120

Non-classificational Information and Non-informational Communication

Source: Dialectica (1972), vol 26, pg. 51-59

Epistemology of Social Science Research

Source: Dialectica (1969), vol 23, pg. 229-280

Monopolarization, Family and Individuality

Source: Psychiatric Quarterly, vol 40, pg. 133-149

Goal generating dissatisfaction, directive disequilibrium and progress

Source: Sociol. Internat.(1967), 5, pg. 169-188

The Navajo philosophy: an estetic ethic of mutuality

Source: Mental Hygiene (1967), vol 51, pg 242-249

The effect of oscillating future perspective

Source: J. Existentialism (1967), pg. 351-357

Metaorganization of information: Information in Classificational Universe, Relational Universe and Relevantial Universe

Source: Cyberenetica (1965), Vol 8, pg 224-236

The Second Cybernetics, Deviation-Amplifying Mutual Causal Process

Source: American Scientist (June 1963), Vol 51, pg 164-179, 250-256


Basic element in misunderstandings

Source: Dialectica (1962/1963), Vol 17, pg 78-92, 99-110

Awareness and unawareness of misunderstandings

Source: Methodos (1962), Vol 17, pg 481-485 (also quoted as Methods (1962) vol 13, pg. 255-275)

Conjunctive-disjunctive-implicational model in discrete scales

Source: Journal of experimental education (1962), vol 30, nr 3, pg 289-305

Major decimal system in frequency synthesis

Source: Journal of electronics and control (1962), vol. 12, nr. 5, pg 369-377

Algebra of interpersonal interaction

Source: Methodos (1962) vol 13, nr 49-50, pg 25-36, Italy

Metacommunicational system of schizofrenics

Source: Transcultural Psychiatric Research (1961), nr 10, pg 76

Inconsitent reliability of the environment as an aetiology of Schizofrenia

Source: Transcultural Psychiatric Research (1961), nr 10, pg 71

Communicational Epistemology (III), Limitations of interpersonal understanding

Source: The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, Vol. 12, Nr. 46. (Aug., 1961), pg. 117-131.


Communicational Epistemology (II), detection and elimination of misunderstandings

Source: The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, Vol. 12, Nr. 45. (May, 1961), pg. 52-62.


Communicational Epistemology (I), misunderstandings

Source: The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, Vol. 11, Nr. 44. (Feb., 1961), pg. 319-327.


Morphogenesis and morphostasis

Source: Methodos (1961), Vol. 12, Nr 48, pg. 251-296

The Multilateral Mutual Causal Relationships among the Modes of Communication, Sociometric Pattern and the Intellectual Orientation in the Danish Culture

Source: Phylon (1961), Vol. 22, Nr. 1. (1st Qtr., 1961), pg. 41-58.


Relational Algebra of Intercultural Understanding

Source: Methodos (1960) vol 11, nr 43-44, pg 269-277, Italy

Le Blufaerdighet Danois (in French)

Source: Revue de Psychologies des Peuples (1960), vol 15, nr 3, pg 251-272

Communicable and Incommunicable Realities

Source: The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, Vol. 10, Nr. 37. (May, 1959), pp. 50-54.


Critique de quelques idées trés répandures au sujet des rapports entre les cultures et la santé mentale. (in French)


A critique of some widely held assumptions on the relationship between culture and mental health

Source: Revue de Psychologies des Peuples (1959), 14 pg 251-276

Observations on three cultures: Denmark, Sweden and U.S.A

Source: Transcultural Psychiatric Research (1959), nr 6, pg 67-69, Canada

Air-sucking as regressive oral gratification in Japanese culture

Source: Transcultural Psychiatric Research (1959), nr 6, pg 12-13, Canada

Visual, temporal auditory and kinesthetic disorientation and disorganization

Source: Transcultural Psychiatric Research (1959), nr 6, pg 77, Canada

Cross-induction between Ethology and Cultural Anthropology on Innate Development and Learning

Source: Transcultural Psychiatric Research (1959), nr 6, pg 75-77, Canada

The epistomology of intercultural understanding : a study in behavioral and communicational epistemology. Rediscovery of philosophy as an open metascience of interdisciplinary cross- induction ; Suppl. 1

Source: Lund (1958)

Appearance and inner thoughts (in Danish)

Source: Perspectiv (1958), Copenhagen

The Danish Mind (in Danish)

Source: Information (19 Jan 1957), Copenhagen,

A contribution to intercultural understanding (in German)

Source: Wissenschaft und Menchenführung (1955), Göttingen

An introduction to Cybernetics (in German)

Source: Wissenschaft und Menchenführung (1955), Göttingen

Discussion in Science, (in Japanese)

Source: Fuyunotokuhon (1941) Chuokoron, Tokyo